Encyclopædia Iranica

Traditionally, Muslim jurists hold that Muslim women may only enter into marriage with Muslim men. The Qur’an explicitly allows Muslim men to marry chaste women of the People of the Book , a term which includes Jews and Christians. A marriage without the consent of the bride or performed under coercion is illegal according to the majority of scholars. If a girl has not attained the age of puberty, the vast majority of scholars hold that she cannot be married; and many stipulate that it must be in her best interest in order to be considered a valid marriage. There is some dispute as to whether or not an under-age bride can leave her family’s custody and be transferred to her husband’s custody, if she has not yet reached puberty. Some evidence supporting both sides can be seen in the following narrations from Muhammad: I have been informed that ‘Aisha remained with the Prophet for nine years i. The Prophet asked Abu Bakr for ‘Aisha’s hand in marriage. Abu Bakr said “But I am your brother. The evidence for this view is as follows:

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It creates an immediately recognisable identity, one that is founded in an all-embracing philosophical and cosmological approach to the creation of designed and constructed works, contrasting multiplicity and unity. It honours nature in an abstract decorative art, and benefits through its lack of restriction by the constraints of a numerical system. A brief introduction to the history of Arabic or Islamic geometry is set out on the next page together with methods by which those geometries can be readily constructed using the traditional means of a straight edge and a pair of compasses.

These first four illustrations are of Islamic geometric patterns that have been executed on different materials, respectively silver, stone, leather and glazed mosaic, and are commonly considered representative of Islamic design. While not demonstrating the wide variety of geometric treatments to be found in Islamic or Arab geometries, they are here to introduce something of the design character and materials that were used in decoration.

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Recently I came across a couple of studies that were among the first I carried out; some others have been lost and some are in private ownership. The studies which follow are all based on patterns I saw and explored, and I thought it might be useful to place them here for the record. Unfortunately there is no record of the examples they were taken from, so they will just have to stand as drafting exercises. I should also admit that these sketches are based on the original photographs of the studies, most of the original drawings having been lost — the photographs being the only record I have of them, but which are in too poor condition to be reproduced.

The illustration above, from which the three following details have been taken, is of one of the original drawings I made in the early s. The width shown is around mm of the original. Although the paper has discoloured slightly with the passage of time, the draftsmanship can still be examined. It is placed here to show something of the concentration that goes into study of this character of geometry as well as the accuracy I tried to maintain in drafting.

Nowadays, drawing with computer programmes, there are still inaccuracies, but they are easier to deal with than when drawing with ink on paper. At this degree of magnification it is possible to see how the grain of the paper, a smooth cartridge, interacts with the ink from the drafting pen. It is probable that the two pens used here were 0.

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By Richard Schiffman Remember the bombing of the Buddha statues carved into the cliffs at Bamiyan in north central Afghanistan in ? The Taliban destruction of these massive archeological monuments dating back to the 6th century has become emblematic of the cultural and religious intolerance of radical Islam. What is less well known is that fanatical elements have done equal damage to Islam’s own religious heritage.

Not only have Shia and Sunni partisans bombed each other’s mosques in countries like Iraq, Syria and Pakistan, but Sufi places of worship are under attack throughout the Islamic world. Last month the world was shocked to learn that the U. Few heard of the other violent events in that country in September, which included the destruction of Sufi shrines in three Libyan cities. In Tripoli security forces watched passively as militants with bulldozers leveled the shrine of al-Shaab al-Dahmani, a venerated Sufi Saint during broad daylight.

In Benghazi, on the other hand, locals fought back killing three of the militants who were assaulting a holy place. Perhaps we don’t hear much about these incidents because attacks on Sufis and Sufi sites have become routine, not just in Libya, but throughout the Islamic world. This past summer, Islamic militants in Mali demolished historical mausoleums, universities and libraries in the ancient Saharan trading town of Timbuktu, several of which were on UNESCO’s list of world heritage sites.

Sufi worship halls have also been turned to rubble in Iran, where the Islamic government has reportedly jailed and tortured thousands of Sufi practitioners for their unorthodox views.

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International Forum for Islamic Dialogue Islamic Economics Another area where Islamic scholarship is a work is in the field of economics. This has included trying to come up with an economics model that is 1 theoretically consistent with Islamic teachings, and 2 practically workable as well. Part of the basic teachings of Islam with regard to economics is clear: Those who were engaged in business needed to be reoriented, and their priorities needed to be changed. With this background, the basic principle of Islamic economics is that gains from economic activity can be sought only through one of two means: Income from activities such as usury, gambling, monopolistic trade practices, hoarding and speculation are therefore all prohibited in Islam.

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The tallest Buddha figure in the world, 55m; ft; created in the 3rd century A. The decree was issued as a team of western diplomats is visiting the Afghan capital to check reports that senior Taliban officials destroyed over a dozen pre-Islamic artefacts in the national museum. Media reports have said zealous officials among the ruling Islamic militia recently destroyed several ancient relics in Kabul Museum, including an exquisite and priceless Buddha statue dating back some 2, years.

Taliban officials have categorically denied the reports but have refused journalists’ requests to visit the museum. The team includes the ambassadors to neighbouring Pakistan from Greece and Italy, the French charge d’affaires for Afghanistan, plus members of the Islamabad-based Society for the Preservation of Afghanistan’s Cultural Heritage. But the source said the envoys were denied immediate access to the museum.

He called these reports baseless propaganda and said he would ask the higher authorities for permission to visit the museum ,” the team member said. Taliban supreme leader Mulla Mohammad Omar has issued several decrees to protect non-Islamic artefacts, which have in the past been targeted by the militia’s zealous commanders. However there is concern that some hardline officials still see the relics as idols which are forbidden under Islamic law.

Kabul museum has been closed to the public since after most of its unique collection was looted during factional fighting between Afghan warlords.

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Dar-al-Jil, , p. Islamic leaders go to extraordinary means to hide the Gospel of Jesus from Muslims. Just as Satan wails at a crucifix at an exorcism – the Islamic cult member normally wails at the sight of the Christian Bible. A false prophet can always be recognized, because he attacks the true prophet.

The god of Muslims is revealed as a tyrant who demands Muslims and all others submit to him. Whereas in the New Testament, Jesus revealed to Christians a God who is a loving Father, who wants us to come to Him via free will.

Throughout Islamic history, education was a point of pride and a field Muslims have always excelled in. Muslims built great libraries and learning centers in places such as Baghdad, Cordoba, and Cairo. They established the first primary schools for children and universities for continuing education. Attitudes Towards Education Today, education of children is not limited to the information and facts they are expected to learn.

Rather, educators take into account the emotional, social, and physical well-being of the student in addition to the information they must master. Medieval Islamic education was no different. The 12th century Syrian physician al-Shayzari wrote extensively about the treatment of students. Thus, he looks for a ruse to escape his studies altogether. Some of the greatest scholars of Islam learned in such a way, and taught their students this way as well.

Some schools throughout the Muslim world continue this tradition of informal education. At the three holiest sites of Islam — the Haram in Makkah, Masjid al-Nabawi in Madinah, and Masjid al-Aqsa in Jerusalem — scholars regularly sit and give lectures in the mosque that are open to anyone who would like to join and benefit from their knowledge. However, as time went on, Muslims began to build formal institutions dedicated to education.

Most of the local population was educated by such primary schools throughout their childhood.

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KABUL, Feb 26 (AFP) – Taliban militia supreme leader Mulla Mohammad Omar on Monday issued a decree ordering the destruction of all statues in Afghanistan including ancient pre-Islamic figures.

Various Romanized transliterations of mu’qadamm and mu’akhaar are accepted. Such an agreement does not make the full amount of the mahr any less legally required, nor is the husband’s obligation to fulfill the agreement waived or lessened while he fulfills his obligations to reasonably house, feed, or cloth the wife and any children produced from the union during the marriage.

The food of the people of the scripture is lawful for you. Also, you may marry the chaste women among the believers, as well as the chaste women among the followers of previous scripture, provided you pay them their due dowries. You shall maintain chastity, not committing adultery, nor taking secret lovers. Anyone who rejects faith, all his work will be in vain, and in the Hereafter he will be with the losers.

GOD is fully aware of their belief. Once you establish that they are believers, you shall not return them to the disbelievers.

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Whereas the cities of southern Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley had obvious outlets to the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea, those of the Persian interior, in most cases, did not. Tell-e Bakun , for Elamite sites e. As records from the Islamic period show, routes also linked e. Aubin ; Yajima and Kamioka , but the relevance of these coast-hinterland routes for the pre-Islamic era is unclear.

Nevertheless, a study of archaeological evidence found at sites in land-locked parts of Persia and literary sources confirms that trade with the Persian Gulf region was vigorous enough to effect the import of numerous types of materials.

As has been the claim by some for decades and centuries In the History Channel video below, an Arab-Egyptian archaeologist inside the pyramid of King Teti (c. BCE), where early inscriptions of the ancient Egyptian sacred writings called the Pyramid .

Mohamed Lahouaiej Bouhlel’s mobile phone records suggest he used dating websites and dabbled with drugs and drink, French media reported. The handset was picked up by police officers after they shot him dead last Thursday in a lorry that he had used to kill 84 people on the Promenade des Anglais, in the French city of Nice. According to officers, the phone is proving more important to the investigation than the seven suspects currently in custody for their links to the terrorist.

The killer is said to have sent a chilling text message demanding weapons minutes before the seafront massacre. Mohamed Lahouaiej Bouhlel Credit: He sent a flurry of texts shortly before the attack. Bouhlel fired a 7. Other weapons found in the lorry turned out to be fakes or replicas. CCTV cameras on the Promenade des Anglais, the scene of the massacre, captured Bouhlel twice in the two days before the attack driving the lorry as he scrutinised his surroundings, apparently preparing how best to execute the attack.

Matrix Bouhlel’s phone is said to be full of messages, videos and photographs, including ones of men and women he had recently slept with. Two hundred officers are now working exclusively on inquiries related to data found on the phone. Bouhlel loved sending selfie photos to people, and would record all of his relationships with other people, however brief.

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