Scientists study lava for clues to how volcano will behave

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Not yet at least. So, an idea became multiple ideas, I combined several plot-bunnies into one, and eventually that turned into this. Hunter of Light will be following Taylor in Brockton Bay, with a few AU elements that turn her into a second generation cape that pinged off of Sophia. It will be less serious than my other fics, and updates will be shorter and less planned out. I’ve posted some snips under the same name in the ideas thread, but they’ve been substantially rewriten, so I advice people who read those to reread the first few chapters.

LAVA is creating the new interior spaces for an old cabaret theatre dating from the roaring ’20s. The abandoned s cabaret theatre has been recently uncovered in the heart of Berlin. The music hall theatre has been buried in 30 tonnes of rubble since when it closed, perhaps as part of a crackdown on the cabaret scene by the Nazi regime.

Clearly visible in the canyon walls are the light-colored granites, such as the Zoroaster Granite, which are stark against the darker, folded strata of the Vishnu Schist and the other metamorphic rock units of the Granite Gorge Metamorphic Suite1 see lowest purple and green shading in diagram. These are former sedimentary and volcanic strata that have been transformed by heat and pressure, possibly during the intense upheavals when the dry land was formed on Day 3 of Creation Week.

These were originally basalt lava flows several meters to tens of meters thick. In some outcrops pillow structures have been preserved, testimony to the basalt lavas having originally erupted and flowed under water onto the Creation Week ocean floor. Metamorphic rocks are not always easy to date using radio-isotopes. Results obtained usually signify the “date” of the metamorphism, but they may also yield the “age” of the original volcanic or sedimentary rock.

The “age” or “date” is calculated from the amount of the daughter isotope produced by radioactive decay of the parent isotope. In Grand Canyon, the “date” of metamorphism of the basalt lavas to form these Brahma amphibolites has been determined as Ma million years ago , based on U-Pb dating of minerals in the overlying Vishnu Schist and underlying Rama Schist that formed during the metamorphism.

These included seven samples from a meter long and 2 meter wide amphibolite body outcropping just upstream from the mouth of Clear Creek at river mile 84 measured from Lees Ferry. All 27 samples were sent to two well-credentialed internationally-recognized, commercial laboratories for radioisotope analyses—potassium-argon K-Ar at a Canadian laboratory, and rubidium-strontium Rb-Sr , samarium-neodymium Sm-Nd , and lead-lead Pb-Pb , at an Australian laboratory.

Both laboratories use standard, best-practice procedures on state-of-the-art equipment.

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This is useful for ceramics, as it determines the date of firing, as well as for lava, or even sediments that were exposed to substantial sunlight. These crystalline solids are constantly subjected to ionizing radiation from their environment, which causes some energized electrons to become trapped in defects in the molecular crystal structure.

An input of energy, such as heat, is required to free these trapped electrons. When a specimen is reheated, the trapped energy is released in the form of light thermoluminescence as the electrons escape. The amount of light produced is a specific and measurable phenomenon. Because this accumulation of trapped electrons begins with the formation of the crystal structure, thermoluminescence can date crystalline materials to their date of formation; for ceramics, this is the moment they are fired.

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Place the base on a stable and flat surface. The base ring has x2 screw holes that allow you to fix the base if required onto a suitable flat even surface. We recommend you use suitable screws x2 of the same specification for the desired surface you will be fixing the base onto. You must ensure the base is positioned and secured safely onto to the desired surface.

Once fixed, the base should be free from movement at all times. Stalagmite shapes may form during the warm up process, these will then melt and the lava will begin to flow. It is normal for the glass to have small air bubbles and moulding scars. For the first few times you may see small air bubbles in the lava. Please note the heating time will decrease after several uses. Please do not leave the product on for more than six hours a day or allow it to overheat; this will prolong the life of your product.

Overheating will shorten the life of the product; if it is overheating there will be either only one large bubble at the top of the bottle or a lot of very small bubbles. Never move or shake the product when it is in use or still warm, as this causes irreparable clouding.

Hawai‘i Volcano Watch: Explosive Eruptions at the Summit of Mauna Loa

It has a surface area of about 5, km2 mi2 and a submarine area that is even more massive. Mauna Loa is in the shield-building stage of Hawaiian volcanism, a period when the volcanoes grow most rapidly, adding as much as 95 percent of their ultimate volume. Scientists calculate Mauna Loa’s volume to be at least 75, km3 18, mi3.

Whether spewing from the ground in red plumes or crawling in a fiery blob across neighborhoods, lava from the Kilauea volcano has produced the most arresting images of the recent eruption.

Dozens of people have died and thousands more have been evacuated in the area around Fuego as a result of its June 3 eruption. Like Kilauea, which, in early May , began a violent episode in an eruption that has carried on for nearly 35 years, Fuego was hardly at rest before this latest explosion. It often spews lava and ash several times in a year and can have many small eruptions in a single day.

But this time the Fuego eruption was different. Damage came fast and forcefully in a chaotic mixture of rock, gas, and ash known as a pyroclastic flow—creating scenes of destruction bearing little resemblance to the images of creeping lava that have emerged from Kilauea. The contrast reminds us that the ways in which volcanoes become dangerous can be as varied as the places and communities where they rumble to life.

Stanford University geologists Gail Mahood and Don Lowe, professors of geological sciences, discuss the mysteries that remain for scientists about what and how researchers can learn from Fuego and other volcanoes—as well as some of the science behind volcanic threats. Q What differences caused Fuego to erupt so violently compared to Kilauea? Eruptions in the Americas tend to produce enormous amounts of ash, dust, rubble, and angular blocks, and the volcanoes often have high, steep cones.

Dense clouds of hot ash and rubble rumble down those slopes like freight trains and just gain momentum as they go. Rain and storms can mobilize loose rubble on these steep slopes and create cold debris flows. Hawaiian volcanoes tend to erupt less violent rivers and fountains of lava. All volcanoes in Central America and in the Cascades in North America are different from Hawaii in that they are related to subduction zones, places where one plate squeezes under another.

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The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years. We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods.

We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous. This gives us the impression that all but a small percentage of the dates computed by radiometric methods agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found, and that all of these various methods almost always give ages that agree with each other to within a few percentage points.

Since there doesn’t seem to be any systematic error that could cause so many methods to agree with each other so often, it seems that there is no other rational conclusion than to accept these dates as accurate. However, this causes a problem for those who believe based on the Bible that life has only existed on the earth for a few thousand years, since fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be over million years old by radiometric methods, and some fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be billions of years old.

If these dates are correct, this calls the Biblical account of a recent creation of life into question. After study and discussion of this question, I now believe that the claimed accuracy of radiometric dating methods is a result of a great misunderstanding of the data, and that the various methods hardly ever agree with each other, and often do not agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found. I believe that there is a great need for this information to be made known, so I am making this article available in the hopes that it will enlighten others who are considering these questions.

Even the creationist accounts that I have read do not adequately treat these issues. At the start, let me clarify that my main concern is not the age of the earth, the moon, or the solar system, but rather the age of life, that is, how long has life existed on earth.

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Basalt commonly features a very fine-grained or glassy matrix interspersed with visible mineral grains. The average density is 3. Basalt is defined by its mineral content and texture , and physical descriptions without mineralogical context may be unreliable in some circumstances.

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USGS photo by F. In map view, these deposits are fan-shaped. Hawaiian volcanoes usually produce lava flows, which are generally benign, but a small percent of the volcanic products is explosive in character. Since risks associated with explosive eruptions are much greater than those associated with lava flows, investigating the deposits on Mauna Loa is an important part of understanding how Hawaiian volcanoes work and the full range of hazards they pose.

There is no sand or other rock; nothing but lava, on whichever side the eye is turned. In , surveyor J. Alexander made the first written description of deposits on the rim of the caldera. Vast columns of illumined steam rose liked flaming gases from the burning pit, rushing upward with fearful speed to the height of 14, to 17, feet…. Clark, a former U. He concluded that the eruptions producing the debris were phreatic explosions produced by the interaction of groundwater and hot rock or magma in origin.

He, too, concluded that the eruptions were phreatic and that the deposits were caused by a series of explosions from the summit caldera area. Observations of explosive eruption deposits on Mauna Loa led to this question: When did the explosions occur? In a study of the deposits, representative samples from each fan and the underlying lava flows substrate were collected.

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Stratovolcano Stratovolcanoes or composite volcanoes are tall conical mountains composed of lava flows and other ejecta in alternate layers, the strata that gives rise to the name. Stratovolcanoes are also known as composite volcanoes because they are created from multiple structures during different kinds of eruptions.

Cinders and ash pile on top of each other, lava flows on top of the ash, where it cools and hardens, and then the process repeats. Throughout recorded history , ash produced by the explosive eruption of stratovolcanoes has posed the greatest volcanic hazard to civilizations. Not only do stratovolcanoes have greater pressure build up from the underlying lava flow than shield volcanoes, but their fissure vents and monogenetic volcanic fields volcanic cones have more powerful eruptions, as they are many times under extension.

Big bombs can measure more than 4 feet 1. List of largest volcanic eruptions A supervolcano usually has a large caldera and can produce devastation on an enormous, sometimes continental, scale. Such volcanoes are able to severely cool global temperatures for many years after the eruption due to the huge volumes of sulfur and ash released into the atmosphere.

They are the most dangerous type of volcano. Because of the enormous area they may cover, supervolcanoes are hard to identify centuries after an eruption.

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Suggested reading and videos For the theory of evolution to be true, the Earth must be millions or billions of years old. Uranium-lead dating at present puts the age of the earth at 4. However, how accurate are the techniques used to date the earth and is there any evidence that the earth could be less than billions of years old? From a Christian perspective, there are differences of opinion see viewpoints page of this site for some different views about whether the days of creation refer to literal hour periods of just to periods of time.

The eruptions of Guatemala’s Fuego volcano and Hawaii’s Kilauea volcano this spring offer reminders that lava, ash, and size don’t fully explain why volcanoes are so dangerous.

The sparsely populated high desert of eastern Oregon is home to three localities producing natural copper-bearing labradorite feldspar. Photo by Robert Weldon. Over five days in late July , we visited three important sources of gem-quality sunstone in eastern Oregon: Oregon sunstone, the official state gemstone since , is natural copper-bearing labradorite feldspar. Feldspars are silicate minerals that contain variable amounts of sodium Na , potassium K , and calcium Ca.

For more on feldspar classification and nomenclature, see box B in Rossman

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First Published 30 Jan Can we rely on radiometric dating techniques? How accurate are they? First, I’ll start by referring you to an extensive article on the young earth creation science website Answers in Genesis , titled “What About Carbon Dating? No, they are not. Yes, I agreed with the young earther on this one. But that doesn’t mean the earth is young.

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See some updates to this article. We now consider in more detail one of the problems with potassium-argon dating, namely, the branching ratio problem. Here is some relevant information that was e-mailed to me. There are some very serious objections to using the potassium-argon decay family as a radiometric clock. The geochronologist considers the Ca40 of little practical use in radiometric dating since common calcium is such an abundant element and the radiogenic Ca40 has the same atomic mass as common calcium.

Here the actual observed branching ratio is not used, but rather a small ratio is arbitrarily chosen in an effort to match dates obtained method with U-Th-Pb dates. The branching ratio that is often used is 0. Thus we have another source of error for K-Ar dating.

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